The Illumina NovaSeq 6000 system is the largest of the Illumina sequencing instruments, able to run two flow cells independently of each other and generate massive sequencing depth at competitive prices.
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Mer-tyrosine kinase: a novel susceptibility gene for SLE related end-stage renal disease.
S Yavuz, P Pucholt, JK Sandling, M Bianchi, D Leonard, K Bolin, J Imgenberg-Kreuz, ML Eloranta, SV Kozyrev, CM Lanata, A Jönsen, AA Bengtsson, C Sjöwall, E Svenungsson, I Gunnarsson, S Rantapää-Dahlqvist, ImmunoArray Development Consortium, DISSECT Consortium, J Nititham, LA Criswell, K Lindblad-Toh, L Rönnblom
Lupus Sci Med, 9 (1) 2053-8790 (2022)
Lupus nephritis (LN) is a common and severe manifestation of SLE. The genetic risk for nephritis and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in patients with LN remains unclear. Herein, we aimed to identify novel genetic associations with LN, focusing on subphenotypes and ESRD.
We analysed genomic data on 958 patients with SLE (discovery cohort: LN=338) with targeted sequencing data from 1832 immunological pathway genes. We used an independent multiethnic cohort comprising 1226 patients with SLE (LN=603) as a replication dataset. Detailed functional annotation and functional epigenomic enrichment analyses were applied to predict functional effects of the candidate variants.
A genetic variant (rs56097910) within the MERTK gene was associated with ESRD in both cohorts, meta-analysis OR=5.4 (2.8 to 10.6); p=1.0×10-6. We observed decreased methylation levels in peripheral blood cells from SLE patients with ESRD, compared with patients without renal SLE (p=2.7×10-4), at one CpG site (cg16333401) in close vicinity to the transcription start site of MERTK and located in a DNAse hypersensitivity region in T and B cells. Rs56097910 is linked to altered MERTK expression in kidney tissue in public eQTL databases. Two loci were replicated for association with proliferative LN: PRDM1 (rs6924535, pmeta=1.6×10-5, OR=0.58) and APOA1BP (NAXE) (rs942960, pmeta=1.2×10-5, OR=2.64).
We identified a novel genetic risk locus, MERTK, associated with SLE-ESRD using the data from two large SLE cohorts. Through DNA methylation analysis and functional annotation, we showed that the risk could be mediated through regulation of gene expression. Our results suggest that variants in the MERTK gene are important for the risk of developing SLE-ESRD and suggest a role for PRDM1 and APOA1BP in proliferative LN.
Host-specificity and dynamics in bacterial communities associated with Bloom-forming freshwater phytoplankton.
IL Bagatini, A Eiler, S Bertilsson, D Klaveness, LP Tessarolli, AAH Vieira
PLoS ONE, 9 (1) 1932-6203 (2014)
Many freshwater phytoplankton species have the potential to form transient nuisance blooms that affect water quality and other aquatic biota. Heterotrophic bacteria can influence such blooms via nutrient regeneration but also via antagonism and other biotic interactions. We studied the composition of bacterial communities associated with three bloom-forming freshwater phytoplankton species, the diatom Aulacoseira granulata and the cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. Experimental cultures incubated with and without lake bacteria were sampled in three different growth phases and bacterial community composition was assessed by 454-Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Betaproteobacteria were dominant in all cultures inoculated with lake bacteria, but decreased during the experiment. In contrast, Alphaproteobacteria, which made up the second most abundant class of bacteria, increased overall during the course of the experiment. Other bacterial classes responded in contrasting ways to the experimental incubations causing significantly different bacterial communities to develop in response to host phytoplankton species, growth phase and between attached and free-living fractions. Differences in bacterial community composition between cyanobacteria and diatom cultures were greater than between the two cyanobacteria. Despite the significance, major differences between phytoplankton cultures were in the proportion of the OTUs rather than in the absence or presence of specific taxa. Different phytoplankton species favoring different bacterial communities may have important consequences for the fate of organic matter in systems where these bloom forming species occur. The dynamics and development of transient blooms may also be affected as bacterial communities seem to influence phytoplankton species growth in contrasting ways.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), the regurgitation of gastric acids often accompanied by heartburn, affects up to 20% of the general population. Genetic predisposition is suspected from twin and family studies but gene-hunting efforts have so far been scarce and no conclusive genome-wide study has been reported. We exploited data available from general population samples, and studied self-reported reflux symptoms in relation to genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes.
We performed a GWAS meta-analysis of three independent population-based cohorts from Sweden, Finland, and UK. GERD cases (n=2247) and asymptomatic controls (n=4503) were identified using questionnaire-derived symptom data. Upon stringent quality controls, genotype data for more than 2.5M markers were used for association testing. Bioinformatic characterization of genomic regions associated with GERD included gene-set enrichment analysis (GSEA), in silico prediction of genetic risk effects on gene expression, and computational analysis of drug-induced gene expression signatures using Connectivity Map (cMap).
We identified 30 GERD suggestive risk loci (P≤5×10(-5) ), with concordant risk effects in all cohorts, and predicted functional effects on gene expression in relevant tissues. GSEA revealed involvement of GERD risk genes in biological processes associated with the regulation of ion channel and cell adhesion. From cMap analysis, omeprazole had significant effects on GERD risk gene expression, while antituberculosis and anti-inflammatory drugs scored highest among the repurposed compounds.
We report a large-scale genetic study of GERD, and highlight genes and pathways that contribute to further our understanding of its pathogenesis and therapeutic opportunities.
The influence of population structure on gene expression and flowering time variation in the ubiquitous weed Capsella bursa-pastoris (Brassicaceae).
D Kryvokhyzha, K Holm, J Chen, A Cornille, S Glémin, SI Wright, U Lagercrantz, M Lascoux
Mol. Ecol., 25 (5) 1365-294X (2016)
Population structure is a potential problem when testing for adaptive phenotypic differences among populations. The observed phenotypic differences among populations can simply be due to genetic drift, and if the genetic distance between them is not considered, the differentiation may be falsely interpreted as adaptive. Conversely, adaptive and demographic processes might have been tightly associated and correcting for the population structure may lead to false negatives. Here, we evaluated this problem in the cosmopolitan weed Capsella bursa-pastoris. We used RNA-Seq to analyse gene expression differences among 24 accessions, which belonged to a much larger group that had been previously characterized for flowering time and circadian rhythm and were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technique. We found that clustering of accessions for gene expression retrieved the same three clusters that were obtained with GBS data previously, namely Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Moreover, the three groups were also differentiated for both flowering time and circadian rhythm variation. Correction for population genetic structure when analysing differential gene expression analysis removed all differences among the three groups. This may suggest that most differences are neutral and simply reflect population history. However, geographical variation in flowering time and circadian rhythm indicated that the distribution of adaptive traits might be confounded by population structure. To bypass this confounding effect, we compared gene expression differentiation between flowering ecotypes within the genetic groups. Among the differentially expressed genes, FLOWERING LOCUS C was the strongest candidate for local adaptation in regulation of flowering time.
Ranking and characterization of established BMI and lipid associated loci as candidates for gene-environment interactions
D Shungin, WQ Deng, TV Varga, J Luan, E Mihailov, A Metspalu, AP Morris, NG Forouhi, C Lindgren, PKE Magnusson, NL Pedersen, G Hallmans, AY Chu, AE Justice, M Graff, TW Winkler, LM Rose, C Langenberg, LA Cupples, PM Ridker, NJ Wareham, KK Ong, RJF Loos, DI Chasman, E Ingelsson, TO Kilpeläinen, RA Scott, R Mägi, G Paré, PW Franks,
Background: We have reported that BRAF V600E mutations and microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) are more prevalent in a population-based cohort of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients than has been reported from clinical trials or hospital-based patient groups. The aim was to explore if other mutations in mCRC differ in prevalence between these cohorts in relation to mismatch repair status and primary tumor location and if presence of bone or brain metastases is associated with any mutations.Material and methods: A population-based cohort of 798 mCRC patients from three regions in Scandinavia was used. Forty-four cancer related genes were investigated in a custom designed Ampliseq hotspot panel. Differences in survival were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator and the Cox regression analysis.Results: Determination of mutations was possible in 449/501 patients for 40/44 genes. Besides BRAF V600E, seen in 19% of the tumors, none of the other mutations appeared more prevalent than in trial cohorts. BRAF V600E and MSI-H, seen in 8%, were associated with poor prognosis as was right-sided primary tumor location (39%) when compared to left-sided and rectum together; however, in a multivariable regression, only the BRAF mutation retained its statistical significance. No other mutations were associated with poor prognosis. ERBB2 alterations were more common if bone metastases were present at diagnosis (17% vs. 4%, p = .011). No association was found for brain metastases. Fifty-two percent had an alteration that is treatable with an FDA-approved targeted therapy, chiefly by EGFR-inhibitor for RAS wild-type and a check-point inhibitor for MSI-H tumors.Conclusions: Right-sided tumor location, BRAF V600E mutations, but no other investigated mutation, and MSI-H are more commonly seen in an unselected cohort than is reported from clinical patient cohorts, likely because they indicate poor prognosis. Half of the patients have a tumor that is treatable with an already FDA-approved targeted drug for mCRC.
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