NGI is still up and running during the Covid-19 pandemic, but we are experiencing some limitations in terms of personnel and key reagents. Each NGI node is following its respective host university recommendations and will continue operation until further notice.
The Illumina NovaSeq 6000 system is the largest of the Illumina sequencing instruments, able to run two flow cells independently of each other and generate massive sequencing depth at competitive prices.
Genotypic variation in Norway spruce correlates to fungal communities in vegetative buds.
M Elfstrand, L Zhou, J Baison, Å Olson, K Lundén, B Karlsson, HX Wu, J Stenlid, MR García-Gil
Mol. Ecol., 29 (1) 1365-294X (2020)
The taxonomically diverse phyllosphere fungi inhabit leaves of plants. Thus, apart from the fungi's dispersal capacities and environmental factors, the assembly of the phyllosphere community associated with a given host plant depends on factors encoded by the host's genome. The host genetic factors and their influence on the assembly of phyllosphere communities under natural conditions are poorly understood, especially in trees. Recent work indicates that Norway spruce (Picea abies) vegetative buds harbour active fungal communities, but these are hitherto largely uncharacterized. This study combines internal transcribed spacer sequencing of the fungal communities associated with dormant vegetative buds with a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 478 unrelated Norway spruce trees. The aim was to detect host loci associated with variation in the fungal communities across the population, and to identify loci correlating with the presence of specific, latent, pathogens. The fungal communities were dominated by known Norway spruce phyllosphere endophytes and pathogens. We identified six quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the relative abundance of the dominating taxa (i.e., top 1% most abundant taxa). Three additional QTLs associated with colonization by the spruce needle cast pathogen Lirula macrospora or the cherry spruce rust (Thekopsora areolata) in asymptomatic tissues were detected. The identification of the nine QTLs shows that the genetic variation in Norway spruce influences the fungal community in dormant buds and that mechanisms underlying the assembly of the communities and the colonization of latent pathogens in trees may be uncovered by combining molecular identification of fungi with GWAS.
Genome-wide association study of angioedema induced by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker treatment.
ER Rasmussen, P Hallberg, EV Baranova, N Eriksson, M Karawajczyk, C Johansson, M Cavalli, C Maroteau, A Veluchamy, G Islander, S Hugosson, I Terreehorst, FW Asselbergs, P Norling, HE Johansson, H Kohnke, AC Syvänen, MK Siddiqui, CC Lang, PKE Magnusson, QY Yue, C Wadelius, C von Buchwald, A Bygum, A Alfirevic, AH Maitland-van der Zee, CNA Palmer, M Wadelius
Pharmacogenomics J., 1473-1150 (2020)
Angioedema in the mouth or upper airways is a feared adverse reaction to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) treatment, which is used for hypertension, heart failure and diabetes complications. This candidate gene and genome-wide association study aimed to identify genetic variants predisposing to angioedema induced by these drugs. The discovery cohort consisted of 173 cases and 4890 controls recruited in Sweden. In the candidate gene analysis, ETV6, BDKRB2, MME, and PRKCQ were nominally associated with angioedema (p < 0.05), but did not pass Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (p < 2.89 × 10 -5). In the genome-wide analysis, intronic variants in the calcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1 (KCNMA1) gene on chromosome 10 were significantly associated with angioedema (p < 5 × 10-8). Whilst the top KCNMA1 hit was not significant in the replication cohort (413 cases and 599 ACEi-exposed controls from the US and Northern Europe), a meta-analysis of the replication and discovery cohorts (in total 586 cases and 1944 ACEi-exposed controls) revealed that each variant allele increased the odds of experiencing angioedema 1.62 times (95% confidence interval 1.05-2.50, p = 0.030). Associated KCNMA1 variants are not known to be functional, but are in linkage disequilibrium with variants in transcription factor binding sites active in relevant tissues. In summary, our data suggest that common variation in KCNMA1 is associated with risk of angioedema induced by ACEi or ARB treatment. Future whole exome or genome sequencing studies will show whether rare variants in KCNMA1 or other genes contribute to the risk of ACEi- and ARB-induced angioedema.
Mutations in COL1A1/A2 and CREB3L1 are associated with oligodontia in osteogenesis imperfecta.
K Andersson, B Malmgren, E Åström, A Nordgren, F Taylan, G Dahllöf
Orphanet J Rare Dis, 15 (1) 1750-1172 (2020)
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous connective tissue disorder characterized by an increased tendency for fractures throughout life. Autosomal dominant (AD) mutations in COL1A1 and COL1A2 are causative in approximately 85% of cases. In recent years, recessive variants in genes involved in collagen processing have been found. Hypodontia (< 6 missing permanent teeth) and oligodontia (≥ 6 missing permanent teeth) have previously been reported in individuals with OI. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate whether children and adolescents with OI and oligodontia and hypodontia also present with variants in other genes with potential effects on tooth development. The cohort comprised 10 individuals (7.7-19.9 years of age) with known COL1A1/A2 variants who we clinically and radiographically examined and further genetically evaluated by whole-genome sequencing. All study participants were treated at the Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden's national multidisciplinary pediatric OI team). We evaluated a panel of genes that were associated with nonsyndromic and syndromic hypodontia or oligodontia as well as that had been found to be involved in tooth development in animal models.
We detected a homozygous nonsense variant in CREB3L1, p.Tyr428*, c.1284C > A in one boy previously diagnosed with OI type III. COL1A1 and COL1A2 were the only two genes among 9 individuals which carried a pathogenic mutation. We found rare variants with unknown significance in several other genes related to tooth development.
Our findings suggest that mutations in COL1A1, COL1A2, and CREB3L1 may cause hypodontia and oligodontia in OI. The findings cannot exclude additive effects from other modifying or interacting genes that may contribute to the severity of the expressed phenotype. Larger cohorts and further functional studies are needed.
Evidence for widespread selection in shaping the genomic landscape during speciation of Populus.
J Wang, NR Street, EJ Park, J Liu, PK Ingvarsson
Mol. Ecol., 29 (6) 1365-294X (2020)
Increasing our understanding of how evolutionary processes drive the genomic landscape of variation is fundamental to a better understanding of the genomic consequences of speciation. However, genome-wide patterns of within- and between- species variation have not been fully investigated in most forest tree species despite their global ecological and economic importance. Here, we use whole-genome resequencing data from four Populus species spanning the speciation continuum to reconstruct their demographic histories and investigate patterns of diversity and divergence within and between species. Using Populus trichocarpa as an outgroup species, we further infer the genealogical relationships and estimate the extent of ancient introgression among the three aspen species (Populus tremula, Populus davidiana and Populus tremuloides) throughout the genome. Our results show substantial variation in these patterns along the genomes with this variation being strongly predicted by local recombination rates and the density of functional elements. This implies that the interaction between recurrent selection and intrinsic genomic features has dramatically sculpted the genomic landscape over long periods of time. In addition, our findings provide evidence that, apart from background selection, recent positive selection and long-term balancing selection have also been crucial components in shaping patterns of genome-wide variation during the speciation process.