NGI offers spatial transcriptomics through the 10X Genomics Visium method, a technique recently nominated as Method of the Year by Nature Methods. The technology combines histology with unbiased transcriptomics in a spatial context.
The Illumina NovaSeq 6000 system is the largest of the Illumina sequencing instruments, able to run two flow cells independently of each other and generate massive sequencing depth at competitive prices.
NGI is still up and running during the Covid-19 pandemic, but we are experiencing some limitations in terms of personnel and key reagents. Each NGI node is following its respective host university recommendations and will continue operation until further notice.
Would you like to work in a field with rapid development in technologies and applications? We are now recruiting a new member to join our team of project coordinators at NGI Uppsala (the SNP&SEQ Technology platform)
DNA Methylation-Based Interferon Scores Associate With Sub-Phenotypes in Primary Sjögren's Syndrome.
J Imgenberg-Kreuz, JK Sandling, KB Norheim, SJA Johnsen, R Omdal, AC Syvänen, E Svenungsson, L Rönnblom, ML Eloranta, G Nordmark
Front Immunol, 12 1664-3224 (2021)
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease with profound clinical heterogeneity, where excessive activation of the type I interferon (IFN) system is considered one of the key mechanisms in disease pathogenesis. Here we present a DNA methylation-based IFN system activation score (DNAm IFN score) and investigate its potential associations with sub-phenotypes of pSS. The study comprised 100 Swedish patients with pSS and 587 Swedish controls. For replication, 48 patients with pSS from Stavanger, Norway, were included. IFN scores were calculated from DNA methylation levels at the IFN-induced genes RSAD2, IFIT1 and IFI44L. A high DNAm IFN score, defined as > meancontrols +2SDcontrols (IFN score >4.4), was observed in 59% of pSS patients and in 4% of controls (p=1.3x10-35). Patients with a high DNAm IFN score were on average seven years younger at symptom onset (p=0.017) and at diagnosis (p=3x10-3). The DNAm IFN score levels were significantly higher in pSS positive for both SSA and SSB antibodies compared to SSA/SSB negative patients (pdiscovery=1.9x10-8, preplication=7.8x10-4). In patients positive for both SSA subtypes Ro52 and Ro60, an increased score was identified compared to single positive patients (p=0.022). Analyzing the discovery and replication cohorts together, elevated DNAm IFN scores were observed in pSS with hypergammaglobulinemia (p=2x10-8) and low C4 (p=1.5x10-3) compared to patients without these manifestations. Patients < 70 years with ongoing lymphoma at DNA sampling or lymphoma at follow-up (n=7), presented an increased DNAm IFN score compared to pSS without lymphoma (p=0.025). In conclusion, the DNAm-based IFN score is a promising alternative to mRNA-based scores for identification of patients with activation of the IFN system and may be applied for patient stratification guiding treatment decisions, monitoring and inclusion in clinical trials.
How to Make a Rodent Giant: Genomic Basis and Tradeoffs of Gigantism in the Capybara, the World's Largest Rodent.
S Herrera-Álvarez, E Karlsson, OA Ryder, K Lindblad-Toh, AJ Crawford
Mol. Biol. Evol., 38 (5) 1537-1719 (2021)
Gigantism results when one lineage within a clade evolves extremely large body size relative to its small-bodied ancestors, a common phenomenon in animals. Theory predicts that the evolution of giants should be constrained by two tradeoffs. First, because body size is negatively correlated with population size, purifying selection is expected to be less efficient in species of large body size, leading to increased mutational load. Second, gigantism is achieved through generating a higher number of cells along with higher rates of cell proliferation, thus increasing the likelihood of cancer. To explore the genetic basis of gigantism in rodents and uncover genomic signatures of gigantism-related tradeoffs, we assembled a draft genome of the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), the world's largest living rodent. We found that the genome-wide ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations (ω) is elevated in the capybara relative to other rodents, likely caused by a generation-time effect and consistent with a nearly neutral model of molecular evolution. A genome-wide scan for adaptive protein evolution in the capybara highlighted several genes controlling postnatal bone growth regulation and musculoskeletal development, which are relevant to anatomical and developmental modifications for an increase in overall body size. Capybara-specific gene-family expansions included a putative novel anticancer adaptation that involves T-cell-mediated tumor suppression, offering a potential resolution to the increased cancer risk in this lineage. Our comparative genomic results uncovered the signature of an intragenomic conflict where the evolution of gigantism in the capybara involved selection on genes and pathways that are directly linked to cancer.
Evaluating totipotency using criteria of increasing stringency.
E Posfai, JP Schell, A Janiszewski, I Rovic, A Murray, B Bradshaw, T Yamakawa, T Pardon, M El Bakkali, I Talon, N De Geest, P Kumar, SK To, S Petropoulos, A Jurisicova, V Pasque, F Lanner, J Rossant
Nat Cell Biol, 23 (1) 1476-4679 (2021)
Totipotency is the ability of a single cell to give rise to all of the differentiated cell types that build the conceptus, yet how to capture this property in vitro remains incompletely understood. Defining totipotency relies on a variety of assays of variable stringency. Here, we describe criteria to define totipotency. We explain how distinct criteria of increasing stringency can be used to judge totipotency by evaluating candidate totipotent cell types in mice, including early blastomeres and expanded or extended pluripotent stem cells. Our data challenge the notion that expanded or extended pluripotent states harbour increased totipotent potential relative to conventional embryonic stem cells under in vitro and in vivo conditions.
Diversification of molecularly defined myenteric neuron classes revealed by single-cell RNA sequencing
K Morarach, A Mikhailova, V Knoflach, F Memic, R Kumar, W Li, P Ernfors, U Marklund
Nat Neurosci, 24 (1) 1097-6256 (2020)
Autonomous regulation of the intestine requires the combined activity of functionally distinct neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS). However, the variety of enteric neuron types and how they emerge during development remain largely unknown. Here, we define a molecular taxonomy of 12 enteric neuron classes within the myenteric plexus of the mouse small intestine using single-cell RNA sequencing. We present cell-cell communication features and histochemical markers for motor neurons, sensory neurons and interneurons, together with transgenic tools for class-specific targeting. Transcriptome analysis of the embryonic ENS uncovers a novel principle of neuronal diversification, where two neuron classes arise through a binary neurogenic branching and all other identities emerge through subsequent postmitotic differentiation. We identify generic and class-specific transcriptional regulators and functionally connect Pbx3 to a postmitotic fate transition. Our results offer a conceptual and molecular resource for dissecting ENS circuits and predicting key regulators for directed differentiation of distinct enteric neuron classes.
Root trait-microbial relationships across tundra plant species.
CM Spitzer, B Lindahl, DA Wardle, MK Sundqvist, MJ Gundale, N Fanin, P Kardol
New Phytol., 229 (3) 1469-8137 (2021)
Fine roots, and their functional traits, influence associated rhizosphere microorganisms via root exudation and root litter quality. However, little information is known about their relationship with rhizosphere microbial taxa and functional guilds. We investigated the relationships of 11 fine root traits of 20 sub-arctic tundra meadow plant species and soil microbial community composition, using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and high-throughput sequencing. We primarily focused on the root economics spectrum, as it provides a useful framework to examine plant strategies by integrating the co-ordination of belowground root traits along a resource acquisition-conservation trade-off axis. We found that the chemical axis of the fine root economics spectrum was positively related to fungal to bacterial ratios, but negatively to Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacterial ratios. However, this spectrum was unrelated to the relative abundance of functional guilds of soil fungi. Nevertheless, the relative abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was positively correlated to root carbon content, but negatively to the numbers of root forks per root length. Our results suggest that the fine root economics spectrum is important for predicting broader groups of soil microorganisms (i.e. fungi and bacteria), while individual root traits may be more important for predicting soil microbial taxa and functional guilds.
Evidence is accumulating that gene flow commonly occurs between recently-diverged species, despite the existence of barriers to gene flow in their genomes. However, we still know little about what regions of the genome become barriers to gene flow and how such barriers form. Here we compare genetic differentiation across the genomes of bumblebee species living in sympatry and allopatry to reveal the potential impact of gene flow during species divergence and uncover genetic barrier loci. We first compared the genomes of the alpine bumblebee Bombus sylvicola and a previously unidentified sister species living in sympatry in the Rocky Mountains, revealing prominent islands of elevated genetic divergence in the genome that co-localize with centromeres and regions of low recombination. This same pattern is observed between the genomes of another pair of closely-related species living in allopatry (B. bifarius and B. vancouverensis). Strikingly however, the genomic islands exhibit significantly elevated absolute divergence (dXY) in the sympatric, but not the allopatric, comparison indicating that they contain loci that have acted as barriers to historical gene flow in sympatry. Our results suggest that intrinsic barriers to gene flow between species may often accumulate in regions of low recombination and near centromeres through processes such as genetic hitchhiking, and that divergence in these regions is accentuated in the presence of gene flow.
Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. These cookies do not store any personal information.
Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website.