NGI offers spatial transcriptomics through the 10X Genomics Visium method, a technique recently nominated as Method of the Year by Nature Methods. The technology combines histology with unbiased transcriptomics in a spatial context.
The Illumina NovaSeq 6000 system is the largest of the Illumina sequencing instruments, able to run two flow cells independently of each other and generate massive sequencing depth at competitive prices.
Bidirectional Selection for Body Weight on Standing Genetic Variation in a Chicken Model.
M Lillie, CF Honaker, PB Siegel, Ö Carlborg
G3 (Bethesda), 9 (4) 2160-1836 (2019)
Experimental populations of model organisms provide valuable opportunities to unravel the genomic impact of selection in a controlled system. The Virginia body weight chicken lines represent a unique resource to investigate signatures of selection in a system where long-term, single-trait, bidirectional selection has been carried out for more than 60 generations. At 55 generations of divergent selection, earlier analyses of pooled genome resequencing data from these lines revealed that 14.2% of the genome showed extreme differentiation between the selected lines, contained within 395 genomic regions. Here, we report more detailed analyses of these data exploring the regions displaying within- and between-line genomic signatures of the bidirectional selection applied in these lines. Despite the strict selection regime for opposite extremes in body weight, this did not result in opposite genomic signatures between the lines. The lines often displayed a duality of the sweep signatures, where an extended region of homozygosity in one line, in contrast to mosaic pattern of heterozygosity in the other line. These haplotype mosaics consisted of short, distinct haploblocks of variable between-line divergence, likely the results of a complex demographic history involving bottlenecks, introgressions and moderate inbreeding. We demonstrate this using the example of complex haplotype mosaicism in the growth1 QTL. These mosaics represent the standing genetic variation available at the onset of selection in the founder population. Selection on standing genetic variation can thus result in different signatures depending on the intensity and direction of selection.
Inoculum Source Determines Acetate and Lactate Production during Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge and Food Waste.
J Moestedt, M Westerholm, S Isaksson, A Schnürer
Bioengineering, 7 (1) 2306-5354 (2019)
Acetate production from food waste or sewage sludge was evaluated in four semi-continuous anaerobic digestion processes. To examine the importance of inoculum and substrate for acid production, two different inoculum sources (a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and a co-digestion plant treating food and industry waste) and two common substrates (sewage sludge and food waste) were used in process operations. The processes were evaluated with regard to the efficiency of hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis, and methanogenesis and the microbial community structure was determined. Feeding sewage sludge led to mixed acid fermentation and low total acid yield, whereas feeding food waste resulted in the production of high acetate and lactate yields. Inoculum from WWTP with sewage sludge substrate resulted in maintained methane production, despite a low hydraulic retention time. For food waste, the process using inoculum from WWTP produced high levels of lactate (30 g/L) and acetate (10 g/L), while the process initiated with inoculum from the co-digestion plant had higher acetate (25 g/L) and lower lactate (15 g/L) levels. The microbial communities developed during acid production consisted of the major genera Lactobacillus (92-100%) with food waste substrate, and Roseburia (44-45%) and Fastidiosipila (16-36%) with sewage sludge substrate. Use of the outgoing material (hydrolysates) in a biogas production system resulted in a non-significant increase in bio-methane production (+5-20%) compared with direct biogas production from food waste and sewage sludge.
NCR3/NKp30 contributes to pathogenesis in primary Sjogren's syndrome.
S Rusakiewicz, G Nocturne, T Lazure, M Semeraro, C Flament, S Caillat-Zucman, D Sène, N Delahaye, E Vivier, K Chaba, V Poirier-Colame, G Nordmark, ML Eloranta, P Eriksson, E Theander, H Forsblad-d'Elia, R Omdal, M Wahren-Herlenius, R Jonsson, L Rönnblom, J Nititham, KE Taylor, CJ Lessard, KL Sivils, JE Gottenberg, LA Criswell, C Miceli-Richard, L Zitvogel, X Mariette
Sci Transl Med, 5 (195) 1946-6242 (2013)
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by a lymphocytic exocrinopathy. However, patients often have evidence of systemic autoimmunity, and they are at markedly increased risk for the development of non- Hodgkin's lymphoma. Similar to other autoimmune disorders, a strong interferon (IFN) signature is present among subsets of pSS patients, although the precise etiology remains uncertain. NCR3/NKp30 is a natural killer (NK)-specific activating receptor regulating the cross talk between NK and dendritic cells and type II IFN secretion. We performed a case-control study of genetic polymorphisms of the NCR3/NKp30 gene and found that rs11575837 (G>A) residing in the promoter was associated with reduced gene transcription and function as well as protection to pSS. We also demonstrated that circulating levels of NCR3/NKp30 were significantly increased among pSS patients compared with controls and correlated with higher NCR3/NKp30 but not CD16-dependent IFN-γ secretion by NK cells. Excess accumulation of NK cells in minor salivary glands correlated with the severity of the exocrinopathy. B7H6, the ligand of NKp30, was expressed by salivary epithelial cells. These findings suggest that NK cells may promote an NKp30-dependent inflammatory state in salivary glands and that blockade of the B7H6/NKp30 axis could be clinically relevant in pSS.
Differential methylation in CN-AML preferentially targets non-CGI regions and is dictated by DNMT3A mutational status and associated with predominant hypomethylation of HOX genes.
Y Qu, A Lennartsson, VI Gaidzik, S Deneberg, M Karimi, S Bengtzén, M Höglund, L Bullinger, K Döhner, S Lehmann
Epigenetics, 9 (8) 1559-2308 (2014)
The extent and role of aberrant DNA methylation in promoter CpG islands (CGIs) have been extensively studied in leukemia and other malignancies. Still, CGIs represent only a small fraction of the methylome. We aimed to characterize genome-wide differential methylation of cytogenetically normal AML (CN-AML) cells compared with normal CD34(+) bone marrow cells using the Illumina 450K methylation array. Differential methylation in CN-AML was most prominent in genomic areas far from CGIs, in so called open sea regions. Furthermore, differential methylation was specifically found in genes encoding transcription factors (TFs), with WT1 being the most differentially methylated TF. Among genetic mutations in AML, DNMT3A mutations showed the most prominent association with the DNA methylation pattern, characterized by hypomethylation of CGIs (as compared with DNMT3A wild type cases). The differential methylation in DNMT3A mutant cells vs. wild type cells was predominantly found in HOX genes, which were hypomethylated. These results were confirmed and validated in an independent CN-AML cohort. In conclusion, we show that, in CN-AML, the most pronounced changes in DNA methylation occur in non-CGI regions and that DNMT3A mutations confer a pattern of global hypomethylation that specifically targets HOX genes.
The D-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA) protein regulates the function of D-amino oxidase (DAO), an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of D-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (D-DOPA) and D-serine. D-DOPA is converted to L-3,4-DOPA, a precursor of dopamine, whereas D-serine participates in glutamatergic transmission. We hypothesized that DAOA polymorphisms are associated with dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline turnover in the human brain. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms, previously reported to be associated with schizophrenia, were genotyped. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were drawn by lumbar puncture, and the concentrations of the major dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and the major noradrenaline metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) were measured. Two of the investigated polymorphisms, rs3918342 and rs1421292, were significantly associated with CSF HVA concentrations. Rs3918342 was found to be nominally associated with CSF 5-HIAA concentrations. None of the polymorphisms were significantly associated with MHPG concentrations. Our results indicate that DAOA gene variation affects dopamine turnover in healthy individuals, suggesting that disturbed dopamine turnover is a possible mechanism behind the observed associations between genetic variation in DAOA and behavioral phenotypes in humans.
Deregulation of the epigenome is an important pathogenetic mechanism in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with lysine (K)-specific methyltransferase 2A rearrangement (KMT2Ar). We performed array-based DNA methylation profiling of KMT2Ar ALL cells from 26 children in comparison to normal B-cell precursors. Significant changes in DNA methylation in KMT2Ar ALL were identified in 2,545 CpG loci, influenced by age and the translocation partners AFF1 and MLLT1. In KMT2Ar ALL, DNA methylation loss was enriched at enhancers and for certain transcription factor binding sites such as BCL11A, EBF, and MEF2A. In summary, DNA methylation changes in KMT2Ar ALL target enhancers, genes involved in leukemogenesis and normal hematopoiesis, as well as transcription factor networks.
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