The Illumina NovaSeq 6000 system is the largest of the Illumina sequencing instruments, able to run two flow cells independently of each other and generate massive sequencing depth at competitive prices.
Population structure and genetic diversity in the nannandrous moss Homalothecium lutescens: does the dwarf male system facilitate gene flow?
F Rosengren, B Hansson, N Cronberg
BMC Evol. Biol., 15 1471-2148 (2015)
Nannandry is a sexual system where males ("dwarf males") are much smaller than the conspecific females. Dwarf males occur in a wide range of unrelated organisms but the evolutionary advantages of this condition are poorly understood. The dwarf male sexual system results in differences in the mode of dispersal and establishment as well as the life span between males and females. Such differences must have profound effects on the population dynamics and genetic structures. We have studied four populations of the nannandrous moss Homalothecium lutescens in southern Sweden. We genotyped dwarf males and female shoots with the aim of describing the genetic diversity and structure of the populations.
Dwarf males were most related to their host shoot, then their colony (within 0.5 m(2)) and then the rest of the population, which suggests restricted spore dispersal. However, a few dwarf males in each population appeared to originate from other colonies and sometimes even other populations. Genetic diversity of dwarf males was generally high but showed no tendency to be consistently higher or lower than female genetic diversity within the four populations.
Although most dwarf males have local origin, sporadic dispersal events occur. The ability of the dwarf males to establish in high numbers in mature colonies facilitates gene flow between populations as well as increases the potential to accumulate genetic diversity within populations.
A Verticillium longisporum pleiotropic drug transporter determines tolerance to the plant host β-pinene monoterpene.
V Rafiei, A Ruffino, K Persson Hodén, A Tornkvist, R Mozuraitis, M Dubey, G Tzelepis
Mol. Plant Pathol., 23 (2) 1364-3703 (2022)
Terpenes constitute a major part of secondary metabolites secreted by plants in the rhizosphere. However, their specific functions in fungal-plant interactions have not been investigated thoroughly. In this study we investigated the role of monoterpenes in interactions between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and the soilborne pathogen Verticillium longisporum. We identified seven monoterpenes produced by B. napus, and production of α-pinene, β-pinene, 3-carene, and camphene was significantly increased upon fungal infection. Among them, β-pinene was chosen for further analysis. Transcriptome analysis of V. longisporum on exposure to β-pinene resulted in identification of two highly expressed pleotropic drug transporters paralog genes named VlAbcG1a and VlAbcG1b. Overexpression of VlAbcG1a in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increased tolerance to β-pinene, while deletion of the VlAbcG1a homologous gene in Verticillium dahliae resulted in mutants with increased sensitivity to certain monoterpenes. Furthermore, the VlAbcG1a overexpression strain displayed an increased tolerance to β-pinene and increased virulence in tomato plants. Data from this study give new insights into the roles of terpenes in plant-fungal pathogen interactions and the mechanisms fungi deploy to cope with the toxicity of these secondary metabolites.
Whole-Genome Analysis of Domestic Chicken Selection Lines Suggests Segregating Variation in ERV Makeups.
ME Pettersson, P Jern
Genes, 10 (2) 2073-4425 (2019)
Retroviruses have invaded vertebrate hosts for millions of years and left an extensive endogenous retrovirus (ERV) record in the host genomes, which provides a remarkable source for an evolutionary perspective on retrovirus-host associations. Here we identified ERV variation across whole-genomes from two chicken lines, derived from a common founder population subjected to 50 years of bi-directional selection on body weight, and a distantly related domestic chicken line as a comparison outgroup. Candidate ERV loci, where at least one of the chicken lines indicated distinct differences, were analyzed for adjacent host genomic landscapes, selective sweeps, and compared by sequence associations to reference assembly ERVs in phylogenetic analyses. Current data does not support selection acting on specific ERV loci in the domestic chicken lines, as determined by presence inside selective sweeps or composition of adjacent host genes. The varying ERV records among the domestic chicken lines associated broadly across the assembly ERV phylogeny, indicating that the observed insertion differences result from pre-existing and segregating ERV loci in the host populations. Thus, data suggest that the observed differences between the host lineages are best explained by substantial standing ERV variation within host populations, and indicates that even truncated, presumably old, ERVs have not yet become fixed in the host population.
Activating FGFR1 Mutations in Sporadic Pheochromocytomas.
J Welander, M Łysiak, M Brauckhoff, L Brunaud, P Söderkvist, O Gimm
World J Surg, 42 (2) 1432-2323 (2018)
Pheochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumors of the adrenal glands. Up to 40% of the cases are caused by germline mutations in one of at least 15 susceptibility genes, making them the human neoplasms with the highest degree of heritability. Recurrent somatic alterations are found in about 50% of the more common sporadic tumors with NF1 being the most common mutated gene (20-25%). In many sporadic tumors, however, a genetic explanation is still lacking.
We investigated the genomic landscape of sporadic pheochromocytomas with whole-exome sequencing of 16 paired tumor and normal DNA samples and extended confirmation analysis in 2 additional cohorts comprising a total of 80 sporadic pheochromocytomas.
We discovered on average 33 non-silent somatic variants per tumor. One of the recurrently mutated genes was FGFR1, encoding the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, which was recently revealed as an oncogene in pediatric brain tumors. Including a subsequent analysis of a larger cohort, activating FGFR1 mutations were detected in three of 80 sporadic pheochromocytomas (3.8%). Gene expression microarray profiling showed that these tumors clustered with NF1-, RET,- and HRAS-mutated pheochromocytomas, indicating activation of the MAPK and PI3K-AKT signal transduction pathways.
Besides RET and HRAS, FGFR1 is only the third protooncogene found to be recurrently mutated in pheochromocytomas. The results advance our biological understanding of pheochromocytoma and suggest that somatic FGFR1 activation is an important event in a subset of sporadic pheochromocytomas.
Early cone setting in Picea abies acrocona is associated with increased transcriptional activity of a MADS box transcription factor.
D Uddenberg, J Reimegård, D Clapham, C Almqvist, S von Arnold, O Emanuelsson, JF Sundström
Plant Physiol., 161 (2) 1532-2548 (2013)
Conifers normally go through a long juvenile period, for Norway spruce (Picea abies) around 20 to 25 years, before developing male and female cones. We have grown plants from inbred crosses of a naturally occurring spruce mutant (acrocona). One-fourth of the segregating acrocona plants initiate cones already in their second growth cycle, suggesting control by a single locus. The early cone-setting properties of the acrocona mutant were utilized to identify candidate genes involved in vegetative-to-reproductive phase change in Norway spruce. Poly(A(+)) RNA samples from apical and basal shoots of cone-setting and non-cone-setting plants were subjected to high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq). We assembled and investigated 33,383 expressed putative protein-coding acrocona transcripts. Eight transcripts were differentially expressed between selected sample pairs. One of these (Acr42124_1) was significantly up-regulated in apical shoot samples from cone-setting acrocona plants, and the encoded protein belongs to the MADS box gene family of transcription factors. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction with independently derived plant material, we confirmed that the MADS box gene is up-regulated in both needles and buds of cone-inducing shoots when reproductive identity is determined. Our results constitute important steps for the development of a rapid cycling model system that can be used to study gene function in conifers. In addition, our data suggest the involvement of a MADS box transcription factor in the vegetative-to-reproductive phase change in Norway spruce.
High modal number and triple trisomies are highly correlated favorable factors in childhood B-cell precursor high hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated according to the NOPHO ALL 1992/2000 protocols.
K Paulsson, E Forestier, MK Andersen, K Autio, G Barbany, G Borgström, L Cavelier, I Golovleva, S Heim, K Heinonen, R Hovland, JH Johannsson, E Kjeldsen, A Nordgren, L Palmqvist, B Johansson, Nordic Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (NOPHO), Swedish Cytogenetic Leukemia Study Group (SCLSG), NOPHO Leukemia Cytogenetic Study Group (NLCSG)
Haematologica, 98 (9) 1592-8721 (2013)
Between 1992 and 2008, 713 high hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemias in children aged 1-15 years were diagnosed and treated according to the Nordic Society for Pediatric Hematology and Oncology acute lymphoblastic leukemia 1992/2000 protocols. Twenty (2.8%) harbored t(1;19), t(9;22), der(11q23), or t(12;21). The median age of patients with "classic" high hyperdiploidy was lower than that of patients with translocation-positive high hyperdiploidy (P<0.001). Cases with triple trisomies (+4, +10, +17), comprising 50%, had higher modal numbers than the triple trisomy-negative cases (P<0.0001). The probabilities of event-free survival and overall survival were lower for those with white blood cell counts ≥ 50 × 10(9)/L (P=0.017/P=0.009), ≥ 5% bone marrow blasts at day 29 (P=0.001/0.002), and for high-risk patients (P<0.001/P=0.003), whereas event-free, but not overall, survival, was higher for cases with gains of chromosomes 4 (P<0.0001), 6 (P<0.003), 17 (P=0.010), 18 (P=0.049), and 22 (P=0.040), triple trisomies (P=0.002), and modal numbers >53/55 (P=0.020/0.024). In multivariate analyses, modal number and triple trisomies were significantly associated with superior event-free survival in separate analyses with age and white blood cell counts. When including both modal numbers and triple trisomies, only low white blood cell counts were significantly associated with superior event-free survival (P=0.009). We conclude that high modal chromosome numbers and triple trisomies are highly correlated prognostic factors and that these two parameters identify the same subgroup of patients characterized by a particularly favorable outcome.
Understanding genome evolution of polyploids requires dissection of their often highly similar subgenomes and haplotypes. Polyploid animal genome assemblies so far restricted homologous chromosomes to a 'collapsed' representation. Here, we sequenced the genome of the asexual Prussian carp, which is a close relative of the goldfish, and present a haplotype-resolved chromosome-scale assembly of a hexaploid animal. Genome-wide comparisons of the 150 chromosomes with those of two ancestral diploid cyprinids and the allotetraploid goldfish and common carp revealed the genomic structure, phylogeny and genome duplication history of its genome. It consists of 25 syntenic, homeologous chromosome groups and evolved by a recent autoploid addition to an allotetraploid ancestor. We show that de-polyploidization of the alloploid subgenomes on the individual gene level occurred in an equilibrated fashion. Analysis of the highly conserved actinopterygian gene set uncovered a subgenome dominance in duplicate gene loss of one ancestral chromosome set.
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