The Illumina NovaSeq 6000 system is the largest of the Illumina sequencing instruments, able to run two flow cells independently of each other and generate massive sequencing depth at competitive prices.
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Human skin-resident CD8+ T cells require RUNX2 and RUNX3 for induction of cytotoxicity and expression of the integrin CD49a.
B Zitti, E Hoffer, W Zheng, RV Pandey, H Schlums, G Perinetti Casoni, I Fusi, L Nguyen, J Kärner, E Kokkinou, A Carrasco, J Gahm, M Ehrström, S Happaniemi, ÅV Keita, CRH Hedin, J Mjösberg, L Eidsmo, YT Bryceson
Immunity, 56 (6) 1097-4180 (2023)
The integrin CD49a marks highly cytotoxic epidermal-tissue-resident memory (TRM) cells, but their differentiation from circulating populations remains poorly defined. We demonstrate enrichment of RUNT family transcription-factor-binding motifs in human epidermal CD8+CD103+CD49a+ TRM cells, paralleled by high RUNX2 and RUNX3 protein expression. Sequencing of paired skin and blood samples revealed clonal overlap between epidermal CD8+CD103+CD49a+ TRM cells and circulating memory CD8+CD45RA-CD62L+ T cells. In vitro stimulation of circulating CD8+CD45RA-CD62L+ T cells with IL-15 and TGF-β induced CD49a expression and cytotoxic transcriptional profiles in a RUNX2- and RUNX3-dependent manner. We therefore identified a reservoir of circulating cells with cytotoxic TRM potential. In melanoma patients, high RUNX2, but not RUNX3, transcription correlated with a cytotoxic CD8+CD103+CD49a+ TRM cell signature and improved patient survival. Together, our results indicate that combined RUNX2 and RUNX3 activity promotes the differentiation of cytotoxic CD8+CD103+CD49a+ TRM cells, providing immunosurveillance of infected and malignant cells.
Expression Levels of hgcAB Genes and Mercury Availability Jointly Explain Methylmercury Formation in Stratified Brackish Waters.
E Capo, C Feng, AG Bravo, S Bertilsson, AL Soerensen, J Pinhassi, M Buck, C Karlsson, J Hawkes, E Björn
Environ. Sci. Technol., 56 (18) 1520-5851 (2022)
Neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) is formed by microbial methylation of inorganic divalent Hg (HgII) and constitutes severe environmental and human health risks. The methylation is enabled by hgcA and hgcB genes, but it is not known if the associated molecular-level processes are rate-limiting or enable accurate prediction of MeHg formation in nature. In this study, we investigated the relationships between hgc genes and MeHg across redox-stratified water columns in the brackish Baltic Sea. We showed, for the first time, that hgc transcript abundance and the concentration of dissolved HgII-sulfide species were strong predictors of both the HgII methylation rate and MeHg concentration, implying their roles as principal joint drivers of MeHg formation in these systems. Additionally, we characterized the metabolic capacities of hgc+ microorganisms by reconstructing their genomes from metagenomes (i.e., hgc+ MAGs), which highlighted the versatility of putative HgII methylators in the water column of the Baltic Sea. In establishing relationships between hgc transcripts and the HgII methylation rate, we advance the fundamental understanding of mechanistic principles governing MeHg formation in nature and enable refined predictions of MeHg levels in coastal seas in response to the accelerating spread of oxygen-deficient zones.
Pax3 loss of function delays tumour progression in kRAS-induced zebrafish rhabdomyosarcoma models.
A Kahsay, E Rodriguez-Marquez, A López-Pérez, A Hörnblad, J von Hofsten
Sci Rep, 12 (1) 2045-2322 (2022)
Rhabdomyosarcoma is a soft tissue cancer that arises in skeletal muscle due to mutations in myogenic progenitors that lead to ineffective differentiation and malignant transformation. The transcription factors Pax3 and Pax7 and their downstream target genes are tightly linked with the fusion positive alveolar subtype, whereas the RAS pathway is usually involved in the embryonal, fusion negative variant. Here, we analyse the role of Pax3 in a fusion negative context, by linking alterations in gene expression in pax3a/pax3b double mutant zebrafish with tumour progression in kRAS-induced rhabdomyosarcoma tumours. Several genes in the RAS/MAPK signalling pathway were significantly down-regulated in pax3a/pax3b double mutant zebrafish. Progression of rhabdomyosarcoma tumours was also delayed in the pax3a/pax3b double mutant zebrafish indicating that Pax3 transcription factors have an unappreciated role in mediating malignancy in fusion negative rhabdomyosarcoma.
Asymmetric introgression reveals the genetic architecture of a plumage trait.
GA Semenov, E Linck, ED Enbody, RB Harris, DR Khaydarov, P Alström, L Andersson, SA Taylor
Nat Commun, 12 (1) 2041-1723 (2021)
Genome-wide variation in introgression rates across hybrid zones offers a powerful opportunity for studying population differentiation. One poorly understood pattern of introgression is the geographic displacement of a trait implicated in lineage divergence from genome-wide population boundaries. While difficult to interpret, this pattern can facilitate the dissection of trait genetic architecture because traits become uncoupled from their ancestral genomic background. We studied an example of trait displacement generated by the introgression of head plumage coloration from personata to alba subspecies of the white wagtail. A previous study of their hybrid zone in Siberia revealed that the geographic transition in this sexual signal that mediates assortative mating was offset from other traits and genetic markers. Here we show that head plumage is associated with two small genetic regions. Despite having a simple genetic architecture, head plumage inheritance is consistent with partial dominance and epistasis, which could contribute to its asymmetric introgression.
p53 protein expression independently predicts outcome in patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes with del(5q).
L Saft, M Karimi, M Ghaderi, A Matolcsy, GJ Mufti, A Kulasekararaj, G Göhring, A Giagounidis, D Selleslag, P Muus, G Sanz, M Mittelman, D Bowen, A Porwit, T Fu, J Backstrom, P Fenaux, KJ MacBeth, E Hellström-Lindberg
Haematologica, 99 (6) 1592-8721 (2014)
Del(5q) myelodysplastic syndromes defined by the International Prognostic Scoring System as low- or intermediate-1-risk (lower-risk) are considered to have an indolent course; however, recent data have identified a subgroup of these patients with more aggressive disease and poorer outcomes. Using deep sequencing technology, we previously demonstrated that 18% of patients with lower-risk del(5q) myelodysplastic syndromes carry TP53 mutated subclones rendering them at higher risk of progression. In this study, bone marrow biopsies from 85 patients treated with lenalidomide in the MDS-004 clinical trial were retrospectively assessed for p53 expression by immunohistochemistry in association with outcome. Strong p53 expression in ≥ 1% of bone marrow progenitor cells, observed in 35% (30 of 85) of patients, was significantly associated with higher acute myeloid leukemia risk (P=0.0006), shorter overall survival (P=0.0175), and a lower cytogenetic response rate (P=0.009), but not with achievement or duration of 26-week transfusion independence response. In a multivariate analysis, p53-positive immunohistochemistry was the strongest independent predictor of transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (P=0.0035). Pyrosequencing analysis of laser-microdissected cells with strong p53 expression confirmed the TP53 mutation, whereas cells with moderate expression predominantly had wild-type p53. This study validates p53 immunohistochemistry as a strong and clinically useful predictive tool in patients with lower-risk del(5q) myelodysplastic syndromes. This study was based on data from the MDS 004 trial (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00179621).
Directional genetic selection by pulp mill effluent on multiple natural populations of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).
EE Lind, M Grahn
Ecotoxicology, 20 (3) 1573-3017 (2011)
Contamination can cause a rapid environmental change which may require populations to respond with evolutionary changes. To evaluate the effects of pulp mill effluents on population genetics, we sampled three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) near four pulp mills and four adjacent reference sites and analyzed Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) to compare genetic variability. A fine scale genetic structure was detected and samples from polluted sites separated from reference sites in multidimensional scaling plots (P<0.005, 1000 permutations) and locus-by-locus Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) further confirmed that habitats are significantly separated (F(ST)=0.021, P<0.01, 1023 permutations). The amount of genetic variation between populations did not differ between habitats, and populations from both habitats had similar levels of heterozygosity (polluted sites Nei's Hs=0.11, reference sites Nei's Hs=0.11). Still, pairwise F(ST): s between three, out of four, pairs of polluted-reference sites were significant. A F(ST)-outlier analysis showed that 21 (8.4%) loci were statistically different from a neutral distribution at the P<0.05 level and therefore indicated to be under divergent selection. When removing 13 F(ST)-outlier loci, significant at the P<0.01 level, differentiation between habitats disappeared in a multidimensional scaling plot. In conclusion, pulp mill effluence has acted as a selective agent on natural populations of G. aculeatus, causing a convergence in genotype composition change at multiple sites in an open environment.
Arsenic, a carcinogen with immunotoxic effects, is a common contaminant of drinking water and certain food worldwide. We hypothesized that chronic arsenic exposure alters gene expression, potentially by altering DNA methylation of genes encoding central components of the immune system. We therefore analyzed the transcriptomes (by RNA sequencing) and methylomes (by target-enrichment next-generation sequencing) of primary CD4-positive T cells from matched groups of four women each in the Argentinean Andes, with fivefold differences in urinary arsenic concentrations (median concentrations of urinary arsenic in the lower- and high-arsenic groups: 65 and 276 μg/l, respectively). Arsenic exposure was associated with genome-wide alterations of gene expression; principal component analysis indicated that the exposure explained 53% of the variance in gene expression among the top variable genes and 19% of 28,351 genes were differentially expressed (false discovery rate <0.05) between the exposure groups. Key genes regulating the immune system, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma, as well as genes related to the NF-kappa-beta complex, were significantly downregulated in the high-arsenic group. Arsenic exposure was associated with genome-wide DNA methylation; the high-arsenic group had 3% points higher genome-wide full methylation (>80% methylation) than the lower-arsenic group. Differentially methylated regions that were hyper-methylated in the high-arsenic group showed enrichment for immune-related gene ontologies that constitute the basic functions of CD4-positive T cells, such as isotype switching and lymphocyte activation and differentiation. In conclusion, chronic arsenic exposure from drinking water was related to changes in the transcriptome and methylome of CD4-positive T cells, both genome wide and in specific genes, supporting the hypothesis that arsenic causes immunotoxicity by interfering with gene expression and regulation.
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